CREATORBukharin, Oleg A.
TITLEUnderstanding Russia's Uranium Enrichment Complex
DATE ACCESSED13 September 2017

This paper traces the development of Russia’s uranium enrichment industry from its inception in the late 1940s through the 1990s, highlighting the industry's importance with respect to global nonproliferation efforts. The report explains the industry's history, beginning with the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) for nuclear weapons and evolving into a source of uranium fuel for naval and civilian power reactors. While the production of HEU for weapons terminated in the late 1980s, the industry continues to produce enriched uranium to meet domestic and foreign demands. The report includes information about the development of the Kamenev centrifuge by Russians, which has become known outside Russia as the Zippe centrifuge after the German scientist who worked on its design with the Russians before returning to Germany. Details of centrifuge development and enrichment infrastructure in the post-Cold War period include the results of the 1993 U.S.-Russian agreement to blend down weapons grade HUE to low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel in U.S. reactors. Tables and maps describe the function and location of facilities in the enrichment complex.

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