AUTHORMoreno, Jonathan D.
TITLEUndue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans
PUBLISHERW.H. Freeman and Company
CITYNew York, NY

This book discusses the secret use of human beings as test subjects for nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons in countries around the world, from the end of the 19th century through the Gulf War. Countries by which such testing is documented include Iraq, South Africa, the United States, Nazi Germany, Australia, Japan, and the former Soviet Union. With a focus on the United States, the author discusses the history of such testing, including many specific cases; the corresponding moral problems; and the development of ethical standards for testing and consent, such as the Nuremberg Code. The author does not indict any particular government; instead, he presents the material in a factual manner. He argues for the benefits of an international research ethics court, and for using truly informed volunteers in the human research that he believes will inevitably be conducted by nations in the interest of national security. He was a senior member of a United States government commission to find out whether or not American soldiers were unknowingly used as medical radiation test subjects. The book includes very informative endnotes.

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